The Tesla Model S is a full-sized plug-in electric five-door, luxury liftback, produced by Tesla Motors. Since its introduction in June 2012 it has achieved rapidly growing sales, particularly in Norway and California. It scored a perfect 5.0 NHTSA automobile safety rating. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) official range for the Model S Performance model equipped with an 85 kWh battery pack is 265 miles (426 km), topping the Tesla Roadster to lead the electric car market. EPA rates its energy consumption at 237.5 Wh per kilometer (38 kWh/100 mi) for a combined fuel economy of 89 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (2.64 L/100 km).