Maine (French: État du Maine) is a New England state in the northeastern region of the United States. Maine is the 39th most extensive and the 42nd most populous of the 50 U.S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick to the north. Maine is the northernmost state in the contiguous United States east of the Great Lakes. It is known for its jagged, rocky coastline; low, rolling mountains; heavily forested interior, and picturesque waterways; and also its seafood cuisine, especially lobster and clams. In spite of its maritime position, it has a continental climate even in coastal areas such as its largest city, Portland. The state capital is Augusta with a population of 19,136 (2010), making it the third least-populous state capital (after Montpelier, Vermont and Pierre, South Dakota) in the nation.
For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine. At the time of European encounter, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area. The first European settlement in Maine was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The first English settlement in Maine, the short-lived Popham Colony, was established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate, deprivations, and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years.